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bharat ias - The philosophy behind MAKE IN INDIA

The philosophy behind MAKE IN INDIA

The philosophy behind MAKE IN INDIA   Why is that mostly foreign service giants like Google(Sundar Pichai),Microsoft (Satya Nadella) etc are headed by Indians. Why is that Indian engineers (especially software),doctors, nurses ,are in great demand in developed and developing countries(Arab ,USA etc). Why since our childhood had goods named as MADE in CHINA,MADE IN JAPAN?Why is that students from Electronics and Telecommunication,Mechanicle etc find it  difficult to be employed. To understand this please read the following.   Every economy undergoes a economic transition in stages as follows Primary (agriculture ,forestry,mining etc)         Secondary (manufacturing etc)                Tertiary(like telecommunication Services,doctors,drivers,teachers etc) This transition happens in same order. However, In India’s case ,transition has been most unusual for a large economy. If one sees the sectoral composition in 1951: Agriculture:60% Manufacturing:20% Service : 20% we can understand that Agriculture had largest share of Indian gdp, workforce during independence ,while service had the least. But today’s (2016-17)economic sectorial share shown in Image_2 shows an abnormal transition from Primary to Service sector,despite India blessed with good amount of resources, minerals and labour force, demographic dividend and stable polity. Why so? The answer to this question is the main philosophy behind Make in India. To make it understand more simply,India importsprocessed/manufactured goods like mobile phones, steel while we export our raw materials like iron ore, Coal ,and software services like Information Technology.   Why Secondary/Manufacturing sector is more important for any country. 1. They add more value to a product ,hence can help in raising the standard of living of citizens. EG:Ghee is more valuable than milk,iron ore is less use than steel. 2.It ensures that we become stragically independent of other countries in critical sectors like Defence. 3.Linkages with other economic sectors. The substantial links with dozens of other sectors throughout the economy ensures that manufacturing output stimulates more economic activity across the wider economy than any other sector. This is called as the multiplier effect of manufacturing.Ex:Mobile phones are helping in creating jobs in healthcare,education,transportation(ola,uber),Agriculture,good governance etc. 4.Balance of trade :Manufacturing helps in ensuring that a Economic crisis like 1991 (balance of Payment) doesn’t occur because there will be continous international markets for our exportsand more forex reserves.   Why India lags in manufacturing.   The reasons for India’s low level of industrial growth are manifold .These are:   *Acquring land is a cumbersome process and often face public anger : Ex: Tata Nano in West Bengal •   Inadequate Infrastructure:Manufactruing is a infrastructure intensive sector that require land, power,access to ports and good roads,logistics support,freight railway carriers etc. •   Investment Regulations:Eg: Too much regulation by RBI,SEBI ,TRAI etc •   Inflexible labour laws:Difficult to fire a employee, paying maternity benefits,employment compensation etc •   The Skill Gap:70% of our graduates are unemployable .  India’s formally skilled workforce is just 2%, while that for countries like South Korea and Japan is 96% and 80% respectively .   Strict environmental issues recent banning of diesel vehicals,industries around Belandur etc Even the 1991 reforms of Liberalisation and Privatisation led to investments largely in service sectors mainly BPO,telecommunication ,Education ,healthcare while less in manufacturing sector . How Make in India initiative seeks to overcome these barriers. Some of the key recent initiatives include:   1. Ease of Doing Business: a.  To improve India`s ranking, reforms are being undertaken in areas such as starting a business,       obtaining construction permits, property registration, getting power supply, paying taxes,       enforcing contracts, and resolving insolvency.   b   Other important reforms relate to the licensing process, time bound clearances for applications       of foreign investors, automation of processes for registration with the Employees Provident       Fund  Organization  and  Employees  State  Insurance  Corporation,  reducing  the  number  of       documents for exports, adoption of best practices by states in granting clearances and ensuring       compliance through peer evaluation, self-certification, etc   c.   E-Biz Portal: The Government to Business (G2B) portal is being set up to serve as a one-stop       shop for delivery of services to investors and to address the needs of business from inception       through to the entire life cycle of the business. The process of applying for industrial licence (IL)       and industrial entrepreneur memorandum (IEM) is now available to businesses on a 24x7 basis       at the E-Biz website. Other services of the central government are also being integrated with the       portal.   d.  Environmental and forest clearances: Applications for environment, coastal regulation zone       (CRZ), and forest clearances can now be submitted online. The decision-making process for       clearances has been decentralised. The requirement for environment clearance has been done       away with  for  projects  such  as  construction of  industrial  sheds  which  house  plant  and       machinery, educational institutions and hostels.   2.   Infrastructure: The government is seeking to improve the physical infrastructure in the country primarily  through the PPP mode of investment. There has been increased investment in ports and airports. The development of dedicated freight corridors is being done and these corridors are expected to house industrial clusters and smart cities.   3.Investment Regulations: The government has liberalised FDI policy:   a.100% FDI under automatic route has been allowed in construction, operation and maintenance of specified rail infrastructure projects.   b.   FDI cap in Defence has been raised from 26% to 49%.   c.   The norms for FDI in the construction development sector are being eased.   4.   Labour-sector reforms: Multiple overlapping and inflexible labour laws have been an impediment to the growth of manufacturing sector in India. The new government has initiated a set of labour reform measures such as:   a.   A Shram Suvidha portal has been launched for online registration of units, filing of self-certified       online return by units, computerised labour inspection scheme, online uploading of inspection       reports within seventy-two hours and timely redressal of grievances.   b. A Universal Account Number has been launched to ensure portability of Provident Fund       accounts for employees.   c. With a view to providing flexibility in working hours and increased intake of apprentices for on       the job training, the Apprentices Act, 1961 has been amended. An Apprentice Protsahan       Yojana has been initiated for the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) sector.   5. Skill Development: For the       manufacturing  sector  to  take  advantage  of  the  improved  business  environment  and  physical          infrastructure, the need for having a strong human capital . Government  has  established  a  separate  Ministry  of  Skill  Development  and Entrepreneurship.   Under Make in India the Government has identified 25 key sectors in which Indian industries have the potential to compete with the best in the world. The sectors include like automobiles, aviation, chemicals, IT, leather, pharmaceuticals, ports, textiles, tourism and hospitality, wellness and railways among others .   Conclusion   The main challenge is in implementation. Governments in the past have announced lofty policies to transform India’s manufacturing .The National Manufacturing Policy of 2012 ,SEZs etcannounced ambitious goals such as increasing manufacturing’s share of GDP from 16% to 25% by 2022. It also sought to increasing manufacturing growth to 12-14% per annum over the medium term. The make in India should be address the bottleneck of these policies by learning lessons ....

Publishes on : 23-Sep-2017 01:24 PM
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bharat ias - In what way Indian democracy is different from western model?       Important for Paper 1 .

In what way Indian democracy is different from western model? Important for Paper 1 .

In what way Indian democracy is different from western model?       Important for Paper 1 . India,USA,CONGO,VENEZULA,Great Britain to Afghanistan what is common is that all these are democracies.Post de-colonisation,democratisation has become a  mode of social change globally. India stands different among all theses in institutionalizing Abrahan Lincoln's ideal of "By the people, to the people and for the people"                                          We are greatly a Gandhian Democracy in following sense. Unlike in West where citizens are having definite inalienable Fundamental rights, Indian Constitution manifests ancient Indian ethos of ‘rina’,kartvavya , hence the concept of Fundamental  duties .Today this has manifested as Corporate Social Responsibilities, NGOs serving the needy,media highlighting apathy of marginalized. 2.Our cultural heterogeneity has survived the aggressive process of globalisaiton .This is through unique experiment of Secularism, where right to practice ,profess and propagate ones own religion is a Fundamental right while it can be reformed in the interest of public morality and order. Unlike in Western model, state can intervene in our religious practices enabling its reform. Banning of untouchability, sati, dowry, child marriage and opening of all temples to all genders.It is this unique experiment that enables India to have continuity of its ancient institutions and change as well. 3. There is a systhesis of spiritualism,traditionalism,materialism that is giving rise to a composite national culture.ex:thekarvachauth,rakhi,Durgapooja have become national culture today.This is unlike in  West where tradition is rejected for materialism. 4.Every ruler is an alien who reject the will of the ruled.—Gandhi.Hence the demand for change has been mostly coming from the people than being enforced unilaterally by the state.The demand to reform the derogatory practices of Triple talaq ,polygamy has come from section of women than imposed state. It is this unique experiment that ISIS has not been able to make inroads into minds of Indian muslims ,who feel a sense of nationalism. 5.The government of Files to government everywhere is unique to a developing country like India. Like Ashoka spoke directly to his subjects today programs like Mann kibaath,Facebook,Twitter  and decentralization of information 5.While larger democracies take pride in urbanization, India celebrates rural culture, rururbanisation .all subsequent govenrments have rural reconstruction at their heart. 6 .No Military rule ,dictatorialrule unlike  Pakistan,Bangladesh, and shows all signs of being vibrant. This is because of participation of all citizens in national movement and efforts by subsequent government to decentralize powers. 7. The Idea of Universal Adult Franchise was institutionalized since Independence , despite majority of voters being illiterate,with full faith on voter.This was unlike western model universalizing only in phases. The way forward. Year 2017 marks centenary of Champaran Satyagraha.Whatever be it the level of Technological Development, our leaders should visit and asses the ground realities of farm suicides Our kartavya of voting,payingtaxes,helpingaccindent victims should not be forgotten,our private corporation should invest in inclusive technologies to uplift their fellow being. Ever and forever pursuit of knowledge,innovation which was part of Indian way of life should drive us as a democratenation . THe legacy of our ancient Indian civilization and freedom movement should march and India be a model for world to celebrate its pluralism.    ...

Publishes on : 23-Sep-2017 01:22 PM
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bharat ias - SAATHIYA’ Resource Kit,

SAATHIYA’ Resource Kit,

 SAATHIYA’ Resource Kit   Under its RashtriyaKishorSwasthyaKaryakram, Union health ministry has launched Saathiya resource kit that is specially designed by experts to help peer educators, especially in villages, discuss sensitive issues and answer teenage queries in their community in an informed manner. The ‘Saathiya Resource Kits’ is a nationwide programme under which 1.6 lakh boys and girls will work as peer educators to adolescents and respond to their queries on key health issues including mental and physical changes, nutrition and addiction. The Resource Kit has been developed by United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and Population Foundation of India (PFI). The initiative also aims to bring down the apprehensions and doubts among growing adolescents about the body related changes that they undergo during puberty. The resource kit comprises of an Activity Book, Bhranti-Kranti Game, a Question-Answer Book and a Peer Educator Diary. The Peer Educators will be trained across the country in a phased manner and the Peer Educator to be recognized and respected as ‘saathiya’, a good friend for the adolescents.     RashtriyaKishorSwasthyaKaryakram (RKSK)   RKSK programme was launched by the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in January 2014 with an aim to cater and address health and development needs of the country’s adolescents. It introduces community-based interventions through peer educators (Saathiyas), and is underpinned by collaborations with other ministries and state governments. To guide the implementation of this programme, the ministry in collaboration with United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has developed a National Adolescent Health Strategy. RKSK identifies six strategic priorities for adolescents: Nutrition Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Substance misuse Injuries and violence (including gender-based violence) Mental health. The strategy focuses on age groups 10-14 years and 15-19 years with universal coverage. It covers males and females in school and out of school; married and unmarried; in urban and rural; and vulnerable and under-served.    SwachhSwasthSarvatra initiative   The government has launched SwachhSwasthSarvatra initiative. It was launched by the Union Health Ministry in collaboration with the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation and Human Resource Development. The objective is to strengthen community health centres in 708 open defecation-free blocks across the country to enable them to achieve higher levels of cleanliness and hygiene. Under it, 10 lakh rupees of financial assistance will be given to the community health centres so that they can be strengthened to meet the standards of sanitation, hygiene and infection control. The initiative is a part of the Swachh Bharat Mission, under the National Health Mission. It is focused on the twin objectives of constructing toilets and enabling behavioural change, with the goal of making India free of open defecation by October 2, 2019.  ...

Publishes on : 04-Jul-2017 02:19 PM
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bharat ias - JananiSurakshaYojna , Mission ParivarVikas

JananiSurakshaYojna , Mission ParivarVikas

  JananiSurakshaYojna   The JananiSurakshaYojana (JSY) is a 100% centrally sponsored Scheme with the objective of reducing maternal and infant mortality by promoting institutional delivery among pregnant women. (JSY) is a safe motherhood intervention under the National Rural Health Mission (NHM). JananiSurakshaYojana was launched in April 2005 by modifying the National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS). The scheme is under implementation in all states and Union Territories (UTs), with a special focus on Low Performing States (LPS). In High Performing States (HPS), where the levels of institutional delivery are satisfactory,Pregnant women from BPL/SC/ST households only are entitled for JSY benefit. The scheme provides performance based incentives to women health volunteers known as ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist) for promoting institutional delivery among pregnant women. There is no bar on age of mother, number of children or type of institution i.ea government or accredited private health facility. A new study brings in first conclusive evidence of the role played by JananiSurakshaYojana (JSY) in reducing ‘socioeconomic disparities’ existing in maternal care.     Mission ParivarVikas   The government will launch Mission ParivarVikasto improve family planning services in seven states where the combined total fertility rate (TFR), or the number of children a woman has in her lifetime) constitutes 44% of the country’s population. The main objective of ‘Mission ParivasVikas is to accelerate access to high quality family planning choices based on information, reliable services and supplies within a rights-based framework. The Union ministry of health and family welfare will launch the programmein 145 high-focus districts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Assam. These districts were identified based on their total fertility rate and sterilization performance among other measures taken for family planning,for immediate, special and accelerated efforts. The target of the government is to reach the replacement level fertility goals of 1 by the year 2025. The key strategic focus of this initiative will be on improving access to contraceptives through delivering assured services, dovetailing with new promotional schemes, ensuring commodity security, building capacity (service providers), creating an enabling environment along with close monitoring and implementation  ...

Publishes on : 04-Jul-2017 02:13 PM
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bharat ias - National Health Policy 2017

National Health Policy 2017

  National Health Policy 2017 The government aims in shifting focus from “sick-care” to “wellness”, by promoting prevention and well-being. It intends on gradually increasing public health expenditure to 2.5% of the GDP. The policy proposes increasing access, improving quality and reducing costs. It proposes free drugs, free diagnostics and free emergency and essential healthcare services in public hospitals. It focuses on primary health care: The policy advocates allocating two-thirds (or more) of resources to primary care. It promotes ‘Make in India’ initiative by using drugs and devices manufactured in the country. It highlights AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy) as a tool for effective prevention and therapy that is safe and cost-effective. It proposes introducing Yoga in more schools and offices to promote good health. It proposes reforming medical education.   Key targets: Increase Life Expectancy at birth from 67.5 to 70 by 2025. Reduce infant mortality rate to 28 by 2019. Reduce Under Five Mortality to 23 by 2025. Achieve the global 2020 HIV target (also termed 90:90:90; 90% of all people living with HIV know their HIV status, 90% of all people diagnosed with HIV infection receive sustained antiretroviral therapy and 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression). To reduce premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases by 25% by 2025.    ...

Publishes on : 04-Jul-2017 02:07 PM
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