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bharat ias - HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2016

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2016

 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2016 THEME:  HUMAN DEVELOPMENT FOR EVERYONE  FACTS: ·       India slipped down one place from 130 to 131 among the 188 countries ranked in terms of human development, says the 2016 Human Development Report (HDR) released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). ·       India’s human development index (HDI) value of 0.624 puts it in the “medium human development” category, alongside countries such as Congo, Namibia and Pakistan. ·        It is ranked third among the SAARC countries, behind Sri Lanka (73) and the Maldives (105), both of which figure in the “high human development” category. ·       The world’s top three countries in HDI are Norway (0.949), Australia (0.939) and Switzerland (0.939). Public health spending ·       The report says 1.5 million people worldwide still live in multidimensional poverty, 54% of them concentrated in South Asia. While poverty fell significantly from 1990 to 2015, inequalities sharpened in the region. ·       South Asia also had the highest levels of malnutrition in the world, at 38%, and the lowest public health expenditure as a percentage of the GDP (1.6%, 2014). India’s public health expenditure was even lower, at 1.4% of the GDP. However, it did make some gains between 1990 and 2015, improving life expectancy by 10.4 years in this period. Child malnutrition also declined by 10 percentage points from 2015, and there was a modest gain in infant and under-five mortality rates. ·       The report praised India’s reservation policy, observing that even though it “has not remedied caste-based exclusions”, it has “had substantial positive effects”. It pointed out that “in 1965, for example, Dalits held fewer than 2% of senior civil service positions, but the share had grown to 11% by 2001”. The HDR also hailed the national rural employment guarantee programme as a “prime example” of “combining social protection with appropriate employment strategies”. ·       The report noted with approval India’s progressive laws, especially the Right to Information, National Food Security, and Right to Education Acts. ·       It commended the Indian grassroots group Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghatan for popularising social audits of government schemes. Gender disparity ·       Noting that women, on an average, have lower HDI than men across the world, the report pointed out that the largest gender disparity in development was in South Asia, where the female HDI value is 20% lower than the male value. ·       In South Asia, gender gaps in entrepreneurship and labour force participation caused an estimated income loss of 19%. “Between their first and fifth birthdays, girls in India and Pakistan have a 30% to 50% greater chance of dying than boys,” the report noted. ·       While India’s HDI value increased from 0.428 in 1990 to 0.624 in 2015, it still had the lowest rank among BRIC nations. However, its average annual growth in HDI (1990-2015) was higher than that of other medium HD countries. ABOUT HDI: ·       The HDI is a measure for assessing progress in three basic dimensions of human development ALONG and healthy life, access to knowledge, and access to a decent standard of living. ISSUE: ·       rise in incomes that came with a more open economy has not translated into A Higher quality of life for many Indians ·       issues  pertain to Public safety, Acid attacks, Discrimination in inheritance rights, Lack of equal employment opportunity ·       significant inequalities persist, particularly between States and regions, which act as major barriers to improvement. ·       The percentage of women in the workforce is the lowest in India among the BRICS countries, ·       population that lives in severe multidimensional poverty is also the worst in the bloc.    ...

Publishes on : 24-Mar-2017 10:02 AM
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bharat ias - Consolidation must for telecom

Consolidation must for telecom

Consolidation must for telecom   Why In News: ·       The merger between Vodafone and Idea Cellular creates a telecom behemoth, with 400 million subscribers and 41% share of the market, ahead of market leader Bharti Airtel-Telenor’s 35.6%. ·       The merger creates a market with four large players: Vodafone-Idea, Airtel, Jio and state-owned BSNL. More mergers are in the air. ·        Bharti has taken over the assets of Telenor; Anil Ambani-controlled Reliance Communications is trying to hammer out a deal with Aircel and MTS. Advantages of consolidation: ·       Consolidation will provide sufficient funds to invest for the future ·       provide better service and lay the foundations of the mobile data revolution that can change education, healthcare and finance. ·        The bigger players already have payments bank licences. ·        In underbanked India, mobile banking can be a boost for financial inclusion. ·       Telcos will become hybrid companies that provide voice, data and other services, including finance Disadvantages of consolidation: ·       While consolidation is good for the industry, for consumers it would mean less discounts as the level of competition dwindles ·       , the spate of M&As in the telecom sector could be is negative for tower companies like Bharti Infratel as merged entities will cut down on overall cell sites   ·       The success of the merger will depend largely on the structure the new company adopts. While an organization structure that allows nimble moves is an imperative, it remains to be seen if this is possible in a company that has two large investors with equal rights....

Publishes on : 24-Mar-2017 10:00 AM
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bharat ias - Centralised Digital Online Platform VAHAN and SARATHI to Curb Corruption

Centralised Digital Online Platform VAHAN and SARATHI to Curb Corruption

Centralised Digital Online Platform VAHAN and SARATHI to Curb Corruption  ·       The Provisions regarding issue of learner’s licence and driving licence ·       The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has introduced online based citizen centric application VAHAN 4.0 and SARATHI 4.0 under digitization to ease out the processes and curb corruption.   ·       Implementation of provisions of Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (MV Act) and Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 (CMVRs) comes under the purview of State Governments. ...

Publishes on : 24-Mar-2017 09:57 AM
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bharat ias - How Nagas Perceive the Creation of Seven Additional Districts in Manipur

How Nagas Perceive the Creation of Seven Additional Districts in Manipur

How Nagas Perceive the Creation of Seven Additional Districts in Manipur WHY IN NEWS: ·       On December 9, 2016, the Manipur government issued a gazette notification creating seven new districts by carving out and bifurcating the state’s existing nine districts. ·       This took the total number of districts in the state to 16. ·       The creation of these districts came against the backdrop of the ongoing indefinite economic blockade enforced by the United Naga Council (UNC) against an earlier proposal for creating two districts, Sadar and Jiribam. ·        The UNC had launched the blockade only after its attempts to interact with the Manipur Government on the issue was stone walled. ·       The aim of the blockade was to make the UNC’s voice on, and objections to the creation of the two districts, heard in New Delhi. ·       Chief Minister Ibobi Singh reiterated that the creation of these new districts is a response to the longstanding demands of the local people as well as for reasons of administrative convenience, Naga leaders feel that it was an attempt to divide the Naga people by merging them with non-Naga areas to form the new districts. ·       Further, they have also taken exception to the Manipur government not consulting the Hill Area Committees before taking the decision. And they have questioned the timing of the decision, which, in their view, was driven by political considerations keeping the recently concluded assembly elections in mind. Issues involved: The Sadar Hills Issue ·       The main problem in the creation of the Sadar Hill District has been the claim of Nagas, under the aegis of the UNC, that most parts of the Sadar Hills belong to the Naga people, and, therefore, a new district should not be carved out especially given that its headquarters would be located at Kangpokpi, a Kuki-majority urban town The Unique Location of Jiribam ·       The other area about which Nagas are sensitive is Jiribam. An erstwhile subdivision of Manipur's Imphal East district and an assembly segment under the Outer Manipur Lok Sabha constituency, Jiribam was a subdivision located 226 km away from the district headquarters and 214 km away from Imphal. ·       The people of Jiribam have often made representations for upgrading the sub division into a full-fledged district, citing alienation from the Imphal East district HQs and nearly eight to nine hours of travel from Jiribam to Imphal East which had to be undertaken for any work related to the District HQs. ·       Also, it did not fit in the logic of having a sub division of a district not contiguous to the district boundary and virtually separated by Tamenglong district in between. ·        Reportedly, a state cabinet decision in August 2006 agreed to award district status to Jiribam and the proposal was subsequently sent to the Delimitation Commission of India in September 2006. ·        But Nagas have been making representations to the effect that the eastern part of Jiribam, which is inhabited by Naga settlements, be made contiguous with Tamenglong District. But without taking into account this Naga demand, the Manipur government upgraded Jiribam into a district through its December 9 notification. Economic Blockade ·       The economic blockade has caused misery and untold sufferings to the common people and has fuelled ethnic tensions in Manipur. Nagas feel that their peaceful protests and appeals to the state as well as the Centre have been ignored. Thus, the economic blockade was seen as the only means through which they are able to raise the pitch. Naga Perspective Biased Political Structure ·       There is a perception amongst the tribal community (Nagas and Kukis) in Manipur that the political structure in the State is skewed against them, given that 40 out of 60 Assembly seats have been allotted to the Meitei-dominated areas in the Imphal Valley thus giving an overwhelming majority to the Meiteis in decision making. ·       This political arrangement is seen as an instrument of continued domination by the Meitei over the hill people. ·       The general feeling is that with almost two-thirds of MLAs coming from the Imphal Valley, the decision in the state assembly can be taken even if opposed by MLAs from the Hill Areas. Tribal communities in the state, therefore, feel the need for a constitutional provision to ensure at least an equal representation of MLAs from the hill areas, so as to ensure that due regard is given for any legal or administrative provision that affects the tribal areas. Article 371C and the Hill Areas Committee ·       In the North Eastern State Reorganization Act, 1971, Parliament provided a constitutional safeguard for the interests of the Hill Areas. ·       Accordingly, the Hill Areas Committee was constituted under article 371C. As per this article, the President may, by order made with respect to the State of Manipur, provide for the constitution and functions of a committee of the Legislative Assembly of the State consisting of members of that Assembly elected from the Hill Areas of that State. ·       The Hill Area Committee is empowered by the Constitution to monitor law making for and administration of hill areas. ·        Since the Hill Area Committees were formed to protect the rights of the hill people under Article 371C of the Constitution, the powers of the state legislature are limited by the Hill Areas Committee. The contention of the Nagas is that any law affecting the hill areas must be vetted by the committee, a rule that the state government overlooked when passing the three bills last year and again while creating the seven new districts. This is viewed by Nagas in particular as a violation of their tribal rights. ·       Also, they feel that the state government has neither consulted the Hill Area Committee nor the Autonomous District Councils, thus disrespecting not only the constitutional provisions but also the local self-governance institutions. ·       The Nagas also contend that these Committees/Councils are denied funds and not consulted by the state government on vital issues pertaining to the Hill people. They demand that this aspect be made a mandatory constitutional requirement by passing an appropriate bill in the Assembly for equal representation of all the people. Violation of Memoranda of Understanding ·       There were four Memoranda of Understanding signed between the Naga civil society and the Manipur Government. According to these, all stake holders would be consulted and the land rights of Naga people would be ensured. ·        Given this, the Nagas perceive the creation of the seven new districts without consulting the stakeholders as a demonstration of utter disregard for the four memoranda as well as for the assurances given to them about consultations on matters affecting them. Fear of Encroachment upon Traditional Land Holdings ·       The institutional divergence and diversity in property rights is a unique phenomenon in Manipur and land has been the root cause of many conflicts in the state. ·       Here the socio-economic and political systems are centred on the issue of land. Land, particularly for the tribals, has remained the single most important physical possession. ·        Land also plays an important role in shaping cultural and ethnic identity. Furthermore, the tribal communities have a symbiotic relationship with land and forests on which their livelihood depends. ·       Given all this, the Nagas see the creation of the seven new districts as a threat of encroachment on their tribal land rights. The Naga Peace Accord ·       The framework of the Naga Peace Accord signed in 2015 between the Central Government and the NSCN(IM) has not been thrown open to public scrutiny. ·       This troubles the average Meitei who fears that the Centre may accede to the NSCN(IM) demand for Greater Nagalim thus redrawing the state boundary, with the Naga-dominated districts going to Nagaland. ·        Since the Government of Manipur is not a party to the Framework Agreement with NSCN(IM) and given perceptions of mistrust between the former Congress Government in Manipur and the BJP Government at the centre, it is speculated by a section of the Nagas that the creation of seven new districts may be a step by the state government to ensure that Manipur does not get affected by any provisions of the Framework Agreement. Status of Autonomous Hill Councils ·       There is also a feeling among Naga leaders that even the autonomous district councils were not consulted while creating the new districts in December 2016. ·       Further, the status of the Autonomous District Councils amongst the newly created hill districts is also not clear. This has led to the apprehension that Manipur’s basic administrative structures are being compromised.   While many tribal groups spearheaded by the Naga fraternity have expressed reservations about the creation of the seven new districts, the majority Meiteis and even the Kuki minority have welcomed the move. The onus now remains with the new Government of Manipur to embrace the perspective of the Nagas and address their core concerns. The views of the Nagas on the formulation of the new districts must be considered and addressed to foster peace and harmony in the state....

Publishes on : 24-Mar-2017 09:53 AM
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bharat ias - National Framework for Malaria Elimination

National Framework for Malaria Elimination

National Framework for Malaria Elimination  The aims of the National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India 2016-2030 are: 1.      To Eliminate malaria (zero indigenous cases) throughout the entire country by 2030; and 2.      Maintain malaria-free status in areas where malaria transmission has been interrupted and prevent re-introduction of malaria.  Objectives: 1.      Eliminate malaria from all 26 States including 15 low (Category 1) and 11 moderate (Category 2) transmission States/Union Territories (UTs) by 2022; 2.      Reduce the incidence of malaria to less than 1 case per 1000 population per year in all States and UTs and their districts by 2024; 3.      Interrupt indigenous transmission of malaria throughout the entire country, including all 10 high transmission States and Union Territories  (Category 3) by 2027; and 4.      Prevent the re-establishment of local transmission of malaria in areas where it has been eliminated and maintain national malaria-free status by 2030 and beyond. ABOUT MALARIA ·       Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type. ·       Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, fatigue, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. ·        Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. ·        In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria.[2]     ...

Publishes on : 24-Mar-2017 09:47 AM
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