bharat ias - India to fill gaps in aerial vigilance

India to fill gaps in aerial vigilance

India to fill gaps in aerial vigilance  Context DRDO plans a much larger and more capable system; in talks with Israel  News After handing over the first indigenously developed airborne early warning and control system, Netra, to the Indian Air Force at Aero India last week, the Defence Research and Development Organisation has set its sights on a much larger and more capable system  Netra system: Eye-in-the-sky The Netra AEW&C system would join the three Phalcon A-50 long-range AWACS mounted on Russian IL-76 transport aircraft. These aerial radars, called eye-in-the-sky, are game-changers in warfare. The Netra AEW&C system has an indigenous radar mounted on the Embraer Emb-145 aircraft and three systems are being developed. The system handed over is in the initial operational configuration (IOC). It gives a 240-degree coverage of airspace The Emb-145 also has air-to-air refuelling capability for longer surveillance time. This capacity will be tested and certified in the next few months  AWACS from Israel India is in negotiations with Israel to buy two more Phalcon Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS) mounted on Russian IL-76 aircraft to add to the three systems in service.  Long range AWACS in development The DRDO has planned to develop a long-range AWACS with a 360-degree coverage akin to the Phalcon The DRDO plans to develop two AWACS at first and then another four  Project Airawat The DRDO began a project in the 1980s to build an AWACS, later renamed Project Airawat, but it was cancelled after a prototype crashed in 1999, killing all eight persons on board    ...

Publishes on : 07-Mar-2017 11:26 AM
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bharat ias - The Responsibility Of Choice

The Responsibility Of Choice

The Responsibility Of Choice Context MTP (Medical Termination of Pregnancy) Act must be backed up with an appropriate social and regulatory environment  Issue: The pro-life vs pro-choice debate  Legalization of abortion in US In the famous Roe versus Wade case US legalized abortion. Jane Roe aka Norma McCorvey became a supporter of pro-life opinion wherein she became against abortion  Pro-choice vs pro-life debate in India In India the narrative is ruled by the pro-choice. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act allows abortion. Why was it done? To reduce the alarming rate of population increase To decrease the maternal deaths due to illegal abortion  Contention Legalized abortion has become a convenient standby, as a woman can cite contraceptive failure to abort an unwanted pregnancy The easy access to abortion services has perhaps promoted a certain amount of irresponsibility  Misuse of Legalized abortion clause: Increased female foeticide Women who could not voice their opinion were forced to abort the girl child resulting in declining sex ratios. The problem increased so much that (Pre-Conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques Act) PCPNDT Act had to be legislated. It placed restrictions on the use of ultrasound scanning  20 week limit Few women and families are aware that a pregnancy cannot be terminated after 20 week period, unless it is likely to threaten the life of the mother The problem: As a significant number of Indian women register late for ante-natal care, there is no option to terminate a pregnancy if something wrong is detected. In the same way, several birth defects are detected after 20 weeks. Women are left unprepared for the consequences, frequentlycarrying a pregnancy to term, with the distressing knowledge that something could be wrong with the baby   Way forward There is a need for aggressive education on planned-parenthood, and on the risk that women undergo when they use abortion as a means of contraception Sonologists have to get together to ensure that counselling is provided to a mother before she undergoes a scan  Conclusion   although the provisions of the MTP(Medical Termination of Pregnancy) Act have to be treasured by Indian women, it has to be used with responsibility and respect towards the unborn life....

Publishes on : 07-Mar-2017 11:24 AM
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bharat ias - Goods and Services Tax GST) Council approves the Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST) Bill and the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) Bill.

Goods and Services Tax GST) Council approves the Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST) Bill and the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) Bill.

Goods and Services Tax GST) Council approves the Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST) Bill and the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) Bill.  Why In News: ·        The Goods and Services Tax GST) Council, has approved the draft CGST Bill and the draft IGST Bill as vetted by the Union Law Ministry. This clears the deck for the Central Government to take these two Bills to the Parliament for their passage in the ongoing Budget Session.  Some of the main features of the two Bills, as finalized by the GST Council, are as follows: ·        A State-wise single registration for a taxpayer forfiling returns, paying taxes,and to fulfil other compliance requirements. Most of the compliance requirements would be fulfilled online, thus leaving very little room for physical interface between the taxpayer and the tax official. ·        A taxpayer has to file one single return state-wise to report all his supplies, whether made within or outside the State or exported out of the country and pay the applicable taxes on them. Such taxes can be Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST), State Goods and Services Tax (SGST), Union Territory Goods and Services Tax (UTGST) and Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST). ·        A business entity with an annual turnover of upto Rs. 20 lakhs would not be required to take registration in the GST regime, unless he voluntarily chooses to do so to be a part of the input tax credit (ITC) chain. The annual turnover threshold in the Special Category States (as enumerated in Article 279A of the Constitution such as Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Assam and the other States of the North-East) for not taking registration is Rs. 10 lakhs. ·        A business entity with turnover upto Rs. 50 lakhs can avail the benefit of a composition scheme under which it has to pay a much lower rate of tax and has to fulfil very minimal compliance requirements. The Composition Scheme is available for all traders, select manufacturing sectors and for restaurants in the services sector. ·           In order to prevent cascading of taxes, ITC would be admissible on all goods and services used in the course or furtherance of business, except on a few items listed in the Law. ·           In order to ensure that ITC can be used seamlessly for payment of taxes under the Central and the State Law, it has been provided that the ITC entitlement arising out of taxes paid under the Central Law can be cross-utilised for payment of taxes under the laws of the States or Union Territories. For example, a taxpayer can use the ITC accruing to him due to payment of IGST to discharge his tax liability of CGST / SGST / UTGST. Conversely, a taxpayer can use the ITC accruing to him on account of payment of CGST / SGST / UTGST, for payment of IGST. Such payments are to be made in a pre-defined order. ·        In the Services sector, the existing mechanism of Input Service Distributor (ISD) under the Service Tax law has been retained to allow the flow of ITC in respect of input services within a legal entity. ·        To prevent lock-in of capital of exporters, a provision has been made to refund, within seven days of filing the application for refund by an exporter, ninety percent of the claimed amount on a provisional basis. ·           In order to ensure a single administrative interface for taxpayers, a provision has been made to authorise officers of the tax administrations of the Centre and the States to exercise the powers conferred under all Acts. ·           An agriculturist, to the extent of supply of produce out of cultivation of land, would not be liable to take registration in the GST regime. ·            To provide certainty in tax matters, a provision has been made for an Advance Ruling Authority. ·          Exhaustive provisions for Appellate mechansim have been made. ·          Detailed transitional provisions have been provided to ensure migration of existing taxpayers and seamless transfer of unutilised ITC in the GST regime ·         An anti-profiteering provision has been incorporated to ensure that the reduction of tax incidence is passed on to the consumers. ·        In order to mitigate any financial hardship being suffered by a taxpayer, Commissioner has been empowered to allow payment of taxes in instalments.    ...

Publishes on : 07-Mar-2017 11:21 AM
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bharat ias - Demonetization and GDP growth:

Demonetization and GDP growth:

Demonetization and GDP growth: Why in news: ·       As per the Central Statistics Organisation (CSO), India's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew at a healthy rate of 7% in the October-December quarter despite Prime Minister demonetization move of  demonetization ·       On November 8, Prime Minister had announced the demonetization of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes as legal tender in order to curb black money and fight terrorism. Reason for higher GDP growth: ·       " The 'agriculture, forestry and fishing' sector is likely to show 4.4% growth in its GVA during 2016-17, as against the previous year's growth of 0.8%. ·       The second advance estimates of National Income, 2016-17, revealed that the growth in the GVA from 'manufacturing' sector is estimated to be 7.7% compared to 10.6% in 2015-16. ·       The per capita net national income (current price) during 2016-17 is estimated to be Rs 1,03,818 showing a rise of 10.2% compared to Rs 94,178 during 2015-16 with the growth rate of 8.9%. ·       In terms of GDP, the rates of PFCE at current and constant prices during 2016-17 are estimated at 58% and 56.1%, respectively, as against the corresponding rates of 57.8% and 56.1%, respectively in 2015-16. ·       the process of remonetisation is complete ·       Stated goals of reining in so-called “black money” — untaxed or hidden wealth — and stemming the use of counterfeit cash that could be used to finance illicit activity would yield long-term benefits. ·       private final consumption expenditure doubled during the quarter which saw higher denomination notes being withdrawn.   ·       Moving the informal economy into the formal economy and if the transactions which for years were never reported as part of GDP are now transacted through banking channels, it will only add to the GDP...

Publishes on : 07-Mar-2017 11:19 AM
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bharat ias - Nagaland Women Demand Ulb Reservation   

Nagaland Women Demand Ulb Reservation  

Nagaland Women Demand Ulb Reservation  Why In News: ·       Nagaland women are demanding 33% constitutional reservation for Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in Nagaland.   Background   ·       74th constitutional amendment (CA) was passed in 1993, providing reservation for women in ULBs. ·       Nagaland adopted this provision by Nagaland Municipal (First Amendment) Act of 2006. ·       Nagaland has not witnessed any ULB election since 2011 due to the conflict between 74th CA and Article 371A principles. ·       In April 2016, the Supreme Court (SC) ordered the state government to hold municipal elections. ·        Nagaland has a high female literacy rate of 76.11%. Yet, there has only ever been one Naga woman elected to the Parliament.   Issues involved   ·       There appears to be a conflict between Article 243T (reservation of seats for women) and Article 371A of the Constitution. ·       Nagaland’s urban areas are facing a lack of governance in provision of basic services because of its refusal to hold elections to ULBs since 2011. ·       There is a conflict between women demanding political representation and the customary law which allows only the men to run the institutions of governance.   About 371 A   ·       No Act of Parliament in respect of Ø  Religious or social practices of the Nagas, Ø  Naga customary law and procedure, Ø  Administration of civil and criminal justice involving decisions according to Naga customary law. Ø  Ownership and transfer of land and its resources. Ø  Shall apply to the Nagaland unless it’s Legislative Assembly by a resolution so decides   Provisions of 74th amendment related to women reservation   ·       Article 243T (3) - Not less than 33% of the total seats by rotation are reserved for women in direct municipal elections. ·       Article 243T (4) – Reservation of women for offices of Chairperson of municipalities would be decided by law by the State Legislative Assembly   Arguments given in support of women reservation   ·       Joint Action Committee on Women reservation contends that denying reservation to women in ULBs is a Constitutional violation. ·       Tribals have no objection to 25% women reservation in village development boards as per Nagaland Village and Area Council Act, 1978. Hence, the opposition to women’s election to ULBs is illogical. ·        Male dominance in the governing institutions may create a vacuum in gender specific policies. ·        It impedes women’s socio-economic empowerment though political representation.   Arguments given against women reservation   ·       Naga Hoho, a body of 16 tribal groups, say that women representation in ULBs is against their customary law. ·       They argue that they are not against women’s representation in these bodies but they are against women standing for elections. They prefer to nominate women rather than have them stand for elections.   Steps taken by the government   ·       Nagaland government has agreed to hold ULB elections with 33% reservation for women. ·       Centre is working to mandate 50% reservation for women in all the ULBs to promote development of ‘engendered cities’.   What needs to be done?   ·       Proposal of 50% reservation to women should be finalized soon and implemented thoroughly. ·       Reform customary law to make it gender neutral. ·        Political parties or various local councils should themselves set ‘voluntary quotas’ for fielding women candidates in elections.      ...

Publishes on : 07-Mar-2017 11:18 AM
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