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bharat ias - How Nagas Perceive the Creation of Seven Additional Districts in Manipur

How Nagas Perceive the Creation of Seven Additional Districts in Manipur

How Nagas Perceive the Creation of Seven Additional Districts in Manipur WHY IN NEWS: ·       On December 9, 2016, the Manipur government issued a gazette notification creating seven new districts by carving out and bifurcating the state’s existing nine districts. ·       This took the total number of districts in the state to 16. ·       The creation of these districts came against the backdrop of the ongoing indefinite economic blockade enforced by the United Naga Council (UNC) against an earlier proposal for creating two districts, Sadar and Jiribam. ·        The UNC had launched the blockade only after its attempts to interact with the Manipur Government on the issue was stone walled. ·       The aim of the blockade was to make the UNC’s voice on, and objections to the creation of the two districts, heard in New Delhi. ·       Chief Minister Ibobi Singh reiterated that the creation of these new districts is a response to the longstanding demands of the local people as well as for reasons of administrative convenience, Naga leaders feel that it was an attempt to divide the Naga people by merging them with non-Naga areas to form the new districts. ·       Further, they have also taken exception to the Manipur government not consulting the Hill Area Committees before taking the decision. And they have questioned the timing of the decision, which, in their view, was driven by political considerations keeping the recently concluded assembly elections in mind. Issues involved: The Sadar Hills Issue ·       The main problem in the creation of the Sadar Hill District has been the claim of Nagas, under the aegis of the UNC, that most parts of the Sadar Hills belong to the Naga people, and, therefore, a new district should not be carved out especially given that its headquarters would be located at Kangpokpi, a Kuki-majority urban town The Unique Location of Jiribam ·       The other area about which Nagas are sensitive is Jiribam. An erstwhile subdivision of Manipur's Imphal East district and an assembly segment under the Outer Manipur Lok Sabha constituency, Jiribam was a subdivision located 226 km away from the district headquarters and 214 km away from Imphal. ·       The people of Jiribam have often made representations for upgrading the sub division into a full-fledged district, citing alienation from the Imphal East district HQs and nearly eight to nine hours of travel from Jiribam to Imphal East which had to be undertaken for any work related to the District HQs. ·       Also, it did not fit in the logic of having a sub division of a district not contiguous to the district boundary and virtually separated by Tamenglong district in between. ·        Reportedly, a state cabinet decision in August 2006 agreed to award district status to Jiribam and the proposal was subsequently sent to the Delimitation Commission of India in September 2006. ·        But Nagas have been making representations to the effect that the eastern part of Jiribam, which is inhabited by Naga settlements, be made contiguous with Tamenglong District. But without taking into account this Naga demand, the Manipur government upgraded Jiribam into a district through its December 9 notification. Economic Blockade ·       The economic blockade has caused misery and untold sufferings to the common people and has fuelled ethnic tensions in Manipur. Nagas feel that their peaceful protests and appeals to the state as well as the Centre have been ignored. Thus, the economic blockade was seen as the only means through which they are able to raise the pitch. Naga Perspective Biased Political Structure ·       There is a perception amongst the tribal community (Nagas and Kukis) in Manipur that the political structure in the State is skewed against them, given that 40 out of 60 Assembly seats have been allotted to the Meitei-dominated areas in the Imphal Valley thus giving an overwhelming majority to the Meiteis in decision making. ·       This political arrangement is seen as an instrument of continued domination by the Meitei over the hill people. ·       The general feeling is that with almost two-thirds of MLAs coming from the Imphal Valley, the decision in the state assembly can be taken even if opposed by MLAs from the Hill Areas. Tribal communities in the state, therefore, feel the need for a constitutional provision to ensure at least an equal representation of MLAs from the hill areas, so as to ensure that due regard is given for any legal or administrative provision that affects the tribal areas. Article 371C and the Hill Areas Committee ·       In the North Eastern State Reorganization Act, 1971, Parliament provided a constitutional safeguard for the interests of the Hill Areas. ·       Accordingly, the Hill Areas Committee was constituted under article 371C. As per this article, the President may, by order made with respect to the State of Manipur, provide for the constitution and functions of a committee of the Legislative Assembly of the State consisting of members of that Assembly elected from the Hill Areas of that State. ·       The Hill Area Committee is empowered by the Constitution to monitor law making for and administration of hill areas. ·        Since the Hill Area Committees were formed to protect the rights of the hill people under Article 371C of the Constitution, the powers of the state legislature are limited by the Hill Areas Committee. The contention of the Nagas is that any law affecting the hill areas must be vetted by the committee, a rule that the state government overlooked when passing the three bills last year and again while creating the seven new districts. This is viewed by Nagas in particular as a violation of their tribal rights. ·       Also, they feel that the state government has neither consulted the Hill Area Committee nor the Autonomous District Councils, thus disrespecting not only the constitutional provisions but also the local self-governance institutions. ·       The Nagas also contend that these Committees/Councils are denied funds and not consulted by the state government on vital issues pertaining to the Hill people. They demand that this aspect be made a mandatory constitutional requirement by passing an appropriate bill in the Assembly for equal representation of all the people. Violation of Memoranda of Understanding ·       There were four Memoranda of Understanding signed between the Naga civil society and the Manipur Government. According to these, all stake holders would be consulted and the land rights of Naga people would be ensured. ·        Given this, the Nagas perceive the creation of the seven new districts without consulting the stakeholders as a demonstration of utter disregard for the four memoranda as well as for the assurances given to them about consultations on matters affecting them. Fear of Encroachment upon Traditional Land Holdings ·       The institutional divergence and diversity in property rights is a unique phenomenon in Manipur and land has been the root cause of many conflicts in the state. ·       Here the socio-economic and political systems are centred on the issue of land. Land, particularly for the tribals, has remained the single most important physical possession. ·        Land also plays an important role in shaping cultural and ethnic identity. Furthermore, the tribal communities have a symbiotic relationship with land and forests on which their livelihood depends. ·       Given all this, the Nagas see the creation of the seven new districts as a threat of encroachment on their tribal land rights. The Naga Peace Accord ·       The framework of the Naga Peace Accord signed in 2015 between the Central Government and the NSCN(IM) has not been thrown open to public scrutiny. ·       This troubles the average Meitei who fears that the Centre may accede to the NSCN(IM) demand for Greater Nagalim thus redrawing the state boundary, with the Naga-dominated districts going to Nagaland. ·        Since the Government of Manipur is not a party to the Framework Agreement with NSCN(IM) and given perceptions of mistrust between the former Congress Government in Manipur and the BJP Government at the centre, it is speculated by a section of the Nagas that the creation of seven new districts may be a step by the state government to ensure that Manipur does not get affected by any provisions of the Framework Agreement. Status of Autonomous Hill Councils ·       There is also a feeling among Naga leaders that even the autonomous district councils were not consulted while creating the new districts in December 2016. ·       Further, the status of the Autonomous District Councils amongst the newly created hill districts is also not clear. This has led to the apprehension that Manipur’s basic administrative structures are being compromised.   While many tribal groups spearheaded by the Naga fraternity have expressed reservations about the creation of the seven new districts, the majority Meiteis and even the Kuki minority have welcomed the move. The onus now remains with the new Government of Manipur to embrace the perspective of the Nagas and address their core concerns. The views of the Nagas on the formulation of the new districts must be considered and addressed to foster peace and harmony in the state....

Publishes on : 24-Mar-2017 09:53 AM
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bharat ias - National Framework for Malaria Elimination

National Framework for Malaria Elimination

National Framework for Malaria Elimination  The aims of the National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India 2016-2030 are: 1.      To Eliminate malaria (zero indigenous cases) throughout the entire country by 2030; and 2.      Maintain malaria-free status in areas where malaria transmission has been interrupted and prevent re-introduction of malaria.  Objectives: 1.      Eliminate malaria from all 26 States including 15 low (Category 1) and 11 moderate (Category 2) transmission States/Union Territories (UTs) by 2022; 2.      Reduce the incidence of malaria to less than 1 case per 1000 population per year in all States and UTs and their districts by 2024; 3.      Interrupt indigenous transmission of malaria throughout the entire country, including all 10 high transmission States and Union Territories  (Category 3) by 2027; and 4.      Prevent the re-establishment of local transmission of malaria in areas where it has been eliminated and maintain national malaria-free status by 2030 and beyond. ABOUT MALARIA ·       Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type. ·       Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, fatigue, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. ·        Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. ·        In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria.[2]     ...

Publishes on : 24-Mar-2017 09:47 AM
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bharat ias - Sparrows nearing extinction due to lack of emotional connect

Sparrows nearing extinction due to lack of emotional connect

Sparrows nearing extinction due to lack of emotional connect  Context “Mindless urbanization” leading to a loss of the birds’ natural habitats  Backdrop The house sparrow that was declared the ‘State Bird of Delhi’ in 2012 is edging towards extinction due to the lack of an emotional connect  Reasons Technology: The current generation is so much surrounded by technology that they have forgotten about nature The indifference caused by a lack of emotional connect has pushed these birds to the edge of extinction  Food Source gone: Earlier women used to clean grain outside their houses and sparrows would have plenty of food from there Severe use of insecticides in farming is killing sparrows’ primary food source in insects and grains Increased use of packed food, insecticides in farming, and changing lifestyles, resulting in an inadequate availability of food for the birds  Architecture: Matchbox-styled” architecture that makes it difficult for the birds to locate pockets to build nest Sparrows need cavities to build their nests. Since the new matchbox style buildings don’t have cavities, sparrows are now homeless  The Human Touch People should hang wooden bird nests in balconies and put out a pot of water for the winged visitors    ...

Publishes on : 24-Mar-2017 09:42 AM
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bharat ias - Parents can evict abusive adult children from their house: HC

Parents can evict abusive adult children from their house: HC

 Parents can evict abusive adult children from their house: HC  Context The right of senior citizens or parents to live peacefully and with dignity  What has happened? According to Delhi High Court Ruling, Children who abuse their parents while staying with them in their house can be evicted from the property  Backdrop An appeal filed by an alcoholic former policeman and his brother, challenging a Maintenance Tribunal’s October 2015 order to evict the two from the residence where their elderly and ailing parents lived Main points   The house need not be self-acquired or owned by the parents. As long as parents have legal possession of the property, they can evict their abusive adult children Major improvisation in a 2007 law that had left it to State governments to frame rules to protect the life and property of senior citizens. Parents can evict abusive adult children from their house: HC  Context The right of senior citizens or parents to live peacefully and with dignity  What has happened? According to Delhi High Court Ruling, Children who abuse their parents while staying with them in their house can be evicted from the property  Backdrop An appeal filed by an alcoholic former policeman and his brother, challenging a Maintenance Tribunal’s October 2015 order to evict the two from the residence where their elderly and ailing parents lived Main points The house need not be self-acquired or owned by the parents. As long as parents have legal possession of the property, they can evict their abusive adult children Major improvisation in a 2007 law that had left it to State governments to frame rules to protect the life and property of senior citizens. ...

Publishes on : 24-Mar-2017 09:40 AM
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bharat ias - Start-up firms may soon find it easy to wind up

Start-up firms may soon find it easy to wind up

Start-up firms may soon find it easy to wind up  Context To enable faster exit for start-ups and to bring the winding up process in line with global best practices, the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) has written to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) to notify start-ups as ‘Fast Track firms’  What has happened? Once start-ups are notified as ‘Fast Track firms’ “they can wind up business within 90 days of making an application for the same Fast Track firms will be start-ups with simple debt structures or those meeting certain criteria that will be specified  The Bharat Navodaya: Start-Up India Reform Report Recommended expediting the company winding up process in India Backdrop:The Report was prepared by the Infosys founder N.R. Narayana Murthy-chaired Alternative Investment Policy Advisory Committee (AIPAC) following a request from capital markets regulator SEBI According to the report said expediting the company winding up process in India would require the notification of Sections 304-323 of the Companies Act, 2013, relating to voluntary winding up Carry Forward: It is recommended that the unutilized losses of an eligible start-up, which is being wound up, should be allowed to be carried forward and set off by the founder of that start-up, against the profits of a new eligible start-up set up within a period of three years from date of winding up of the failed start-up Start-ups and venture capital investors expressed concerns that the process of winding up a company is extremely long and cumbersome, adding to the risk of starting up and operating an enterprise as well as wastage of invaluable human capital    The Government: To facilitate easier exit for firms the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India has been constituted and the provisions regarding corporate insolvency resolution have been implemented....

Publishes on : 21-Mar-2017 07:02 AM
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